Organic fuels are Being a common Talk today because it is the answer to transport pollution, but while Pelle Neroth discovers there remain more questions than answers.the giant atom-formed monument which defines the city. The silver plated balls suspended in the sky, bound by tubes. Built at the dawn of the nuclear age, when the nuclear energy thought by people would solve all their problems.�
We all knew the history, but it was worth to still hear. Jose Maria Figueres Olsen, former president of Costa Rica and higher former executive of the economic forum of the world, started with an implicit reference to a fact dropping by the former president of Costa Rica: �We all are which will die. But this is why much, perhaps, do not worry about the glaciers of Greenland throwing in the Atlantic Ocean. All the individual-sacrifices would be much of effort for any profit, since the profits profit the next generation while you must support the cost.� Thus he said: �You know when people built the cathedrals, they you are comprised as if they could see that they achieved in a generation, although it was the work of many generations. Is thus the combat against the climate change.�
There were mention of the stick of hockey and oil of peak. That the Chinese sales of this car of year caught up with of the Japanese those and that from here China 2015 would buy more cars than America - and, even in this case, China should increase its density of car of five times to reach the figure of America. By then, China, five times larger, roterait megatons of carbon.
Was after Marianne Fischer Boel, European Commissioner for the agriculture, which indicated that 20 percent of gas with greenhouse effect (GHG) came from transport and of this were the only sector where the CO2 emissions developed. �Europe must act together,� she said, or there will be just many efforts reduced in fragments carrying out nowhere, she implied.
Thus the European Commission (EC.) presented a legislative proposal in January which requires a GHG inside cut 20 per percent, 20 per percent a use of energy cut inside, and 20 renewable percent of energy utilization to Europe from here 2020. The problem of transport will be resolved by a greater engagement with organic fuels.
The organic fuels include the biodiesel and bio�thanol, made starting from, oil of palm tree and oil cole-seed of kitchen; and beets, canes with sugar and corn respectively. The target is of 10 percent of fuel of transport; to increase with 35-40 percent 2030. China has a five-year plan. America also has a plan of ambitious expansion. While Europe expects that private industry develops companies manufacturing of organic fuels, the ministry for the energy of the USA gave to new businesses of great concessions.
The principal advantage of organic fuels is simple: they are renewable. Even the skeptics of total warming realize that oil is finished - total consumption is one per annum thousand cubic - and thus has many of other desirable uses of high values.
Another advantage is increased energy security: the independence of increasingly expensive oil originating in the difficult Middle East. America is completely explicit about this, with an invoice requiring an increase of 7 times of the use of organic fuels from here 2022 (the Law of energy independence and safety).
The organic fuels propose reductions of GHG, not emissions of pipe of tail, which are the same ones as for the gasoline. By making an evaluation of life cycle of the use of carbon if you factorize in the absorption of CO2 of the fuels based on corn, the cole-seed, the cane with sugar, etc, this clearly reduce their clear carbon contribution. You must also factorize in CO2 used in the production (manures, transport, manufacture), but nevertheless, according to studies employed by EC., of the reductions of the emissions of offers GHG of cole-seed of 50 percent, halfway percent between 90 percent of the Brazilian cane with sugar and the American corn 15. As Fischer Boel indicated: The �organic fuels are an essential component in our toolbox to fight the climate change.�
But it is not as simple as just saying the farmers under-employed of Europe to start to plow their overall asides with organic fuel harvests. There are problems with scheduling - obliging investors, factories, the transport infrastructure, stations of fuel, manufacturers of car, and, then, especially, customers to accept new fuels.
They is beginnings, but only one country in Europe up to now took with the cars bio�thanol in all the quantities - Sweden. But even with tax reductions, the exemptions of load of congestion and a money concession cash, the vehicles of flexifuel (which can take the gasoline and/or ethanol) compose always only 15 percent of new sales of car. The Swede government requires service station to have ethanol pumps; so much 2.000 make. In France the figure is 180. With RU it is approximately 20.�
If the unavailability of pump, the innovation of ethanol, and its corrosive properties pled were its only problems, the work of sale of EC. would have been rather hard, but it is also handicapped by a seeming incapacity to push innovations such as harvests of GM through. But the problems of organic fuels are larger than that.
There were dissensions between the demonstrators and the security agents with the conferences. While the demonstrators had pinned plates in the Centers of conferences, young frustrating entrepreneurs and biotechnological executives were reduced to speak grognon in their cellphones. They were left inside thereafter, but only after being given the layers which indicated that the organic fuels were for the �biofools�.�
It is not simply a sight found on the ecological left. A report/ratio of work group of OECD has as from September 2007 indicated that the twenty-fold quantity envisaged energy being extracted annually starting from the ground from here 2050 and of the increasing populations (nine billion 2050) will limit the quantity of new ground which can be introduced into the production leading to a `food-against-fuel' the discussion. This would push the people famished in reducing the tropical forests to cultivate harvests, or the other for the money cash
or food. The great organic fuel complaint was that they were good for the environment, but impacts such as the acidification of ground, the use of manure, the loss of biodiversity and the toxicity of the agricultural pesticides suggest that �the incidences on the environment total can very easily exceed those of the gasoline and the mineral diesel�.
For the good measure, the internal unit of council of the science of EC. ran a paper which the policy will be excessively expensive and neither will lead to the substantial saving of GHG nor to job creation. Science, the world principal newspaper of science, further disappears than the report/ratio from OECD, to say this analysis, on which EC. based its suggestions of policy, to count the carbon emission which occurred while the farmers answered at higher prices and forest and meadows converted with the croplands. The study noted that the ethanol corn-based, instead of producing a saving in 20 percent, almost doubled GHG over 30 years and increased them over 167 years.
A report/ratio of UNO, stand of end of �Orangutan�, indicated that, combined with pressures of notation and fire, the production of oil of palm tree could have like consequence the destruction of 98 percent of the tropical forest of Indonesia within 12 year. Jean Ziegler, the special protractor of UNO on food, calls organic fuels a �crime against humanity�.
One of the interesting things about organic fuels is that the number of patents increased by 150 percent during each of the two last years, and has now more patents published, more than 1.000 per year, that solar and combined wind.
It seems that the majority of these holders of patent travel around Europe and the glare of the world with the $1bn in organic fuels that the research and development projects the ministry for the energy of the USA grants to make organic fuels of second generation. There is a leaven direction in industry, so to speak, so that the new manners prepare mainly ethanol. There is a score of experimental equipment in the USA and Europe.
One of the principal fields of research relates to cellulose of rotation of grasses, sawdust of bagasse (the residue of the cane with sugar), chips of wood, straw, even waste municipal, in ethanol. (It is slightly alarming to start to see each factory and tree around like right energy source. Whither Wordsworth?)
Their debts of manure and carbon of production were already paid by their basic commodities; thus they are greenest of all ethanols, and they do not make bivalent as potential food crops. But the treatment is more complex: the lignin sheaths protecting cellulose must be separate outside by applications of acid; then hydrolized with the assistance of the genetically machin�es enzymes. They then reached cane beet sugar state the or with sugar. These simple sugars can be fermented by yeasts with alcohols as usual, before being distilled in bio�thanol usable.
The plethora of proteins of wood-digestion lying in the entrails of the termites were intensively studied to test and throw the light on the capacity of the wood-consumption of the bugs to suggest cheaper, more in effective ways to produce cellulose ethanol. But there is much, much other routes being studied.
A recent analysis indicated that no opening was likely to bring us to the point of the effective production of organic fuel. On the other hand, it will probably take many advances on several scientific and technological fronts, stressing the importance of a systematized approach. And the economic scenes would determine gaining it, no MATER what plant obtains built in the short run.
Dilemma of use of the ground
What EC. and the USA have fact is are made with a discussed policy, and only which will live will see whether the organic fuels of second generation will make a difference.
EC. must convince not only the public, but of the heads of government. In the annual summit of competitiveness of spring of European Union in March, Angela Merkel made public her concern about the carbon escape, that the industry would emigrate under where the environmental conditions are slackened.
Iron and steel industry, which will be prone to the carbon hat and marketing policies which form the other board of center of the new environmental policy of EC., complained that its cost will go up by 10 percent under the new legislation.
It is a whole of battle to continue to make rage against O.N.G.s hostile (nongovernmental organizations) and the journalists and an indifferent and confused public. Perhaps it is a battle which will return of other exits; so that these promises are the question of the century. Once do you start to speak about harvests and the use of the territory - if is the use of the ground of what O.N.G.s worry - why not passing very close to for cattle?
For example, a delegate at a meeting I was recently with remarkable that the majority of the arable lands in fact are not employed by the biocrops but the cattle for the pasture; in terms of calorie, this ground better would be employed to cultivate harvests, eaten directly by people.
Little time after we have any derivative with far in most sumptuous of the banquets, where many splendid meat dishes were served and the abundance of ethanol of the higher kind were been useful, perhaps weighing down various ironies.